class: middle, center
[Unified Modelling Language]
## Conversion of UML Class Diagrams to the Relational Model
by [João Rocha da Silva](https://silvae86.github.io), based on the [book](https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1554749) by Ullman and Widom and other sources.
.red[(In construction. DO NOT USE. Use the [slides](https://drive.google.com/file/d/1LCbseRfrHvnyd1f4oYi1zMt2dVM2Q8BA/view?usp=sharing) by Prof. [Carla Lopes](http://www.carlalopes.com) instead.]
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.indexpill[[Types of Generalization](#typesofgeneralization)]
.indexpill[[N-ary association classes](#nary_association_classes)]
- To provide conversion strategies from UML to the Relational model
Classes are used to represent the main entities of the system.
Their syntax consists of a box with two main sections.
- The first section contains the **name** of the class
- The bottom will contain all the Class's [Attributes](#attributes), **one per line**.
.footnote[Class names are always represented in the singular, as a class denotes a **type** of entity, instead of a **set** of all entities of a certain type.]
- Attributes represent characteristics of all objects of the Class. They have basic types like `integer`, `double`, `string`, etc*.*
- Attributes cannot be multi-valued; if you have an attribute that can have multiple values for an object of a class, that attribute is likely a Class and should be promoted to that.
- Associations are binary relationships between classes
- Represented by a line drawn between the two classes that we want to associate
At each end of the line we add the [multiplicity](#multiplicity) of the association.
- Serves to specify the cardinality (or possible number of elements) of some collections of elements.
- It is specified through an interval with a lower and upper bound, which can be infinite.
| Multiplicity | Equivalent | Cardinality |
| ------------ | ---------- | --------------------------------------------------- |
| 0..0 | 0 | Collection must be empty (rare, but can occur) |
| 0..1 | | Must contain zero or one instance |
| 1..1 | | Must contain exactly one instance |
| 0...* | * | Must contain zero or more instances |
| 1...* | | Must contain at least one or more instances |
| 5...5 | 5 | Must contain exactly 5 instances |
| m...n | | Must contain at least `m` and at most `n` instances |
## Association Class
- Sometimes we need to represent attributes derived from an association of classes instead of classes themselves
- An attribute of the product? No! That would make the quantity of that product the same for every order in the system. That works if we wanted to save the **quantity in stock** of each product, for example, which only depends on the product and nothing else.
## Association Class (Example 1)
- A Class that is derived from an association between several classes
- Usually emerges to represent characteristics of the association. Groups of attributes that depend on the associated classes
- Can be derived from many-to-many relationships, one-to-one and many-to-one associations
- Denoted by a box (usually without a title) connected by a dashed line to the solid line denoting the association between two classes.
## Association Class (Example 2)
- Used to extract the common characteristics of a set of classes. A **superclass** is extracted, containing the common attributes of all **subclasses**.
- It is represented by an equilateral triangle pointing to the superclass and attached to it, with lines coming from it towards all subclasses.
.foonote[`Employee`s and `Customer`s are both `Person`s, so they have the attributes of a `Person`, as well as their own particular attributes]
## Types of Generalization
- Generalizations can be
- **Overlapping** (an object can be of more than one subclass) or **Disjoint** (can only belong to one subclass)
- **Partial** (objects may not belong to any of the subclasses) or **Complete** (all objects of the superclass must be also objects of one or more subclasses)
- A special kind of association, denoted by a line between two classes.
- At one end we place a white diamond, which means `0...1`.
- For the other end, if nothing is written, the syntax implies `*`. We can restrict the lower bound of that multiplicity by writing something different, e.g. `1..*`.
.footnote[Does **not** express parent-child relationships. If the diamond end object is deleted, the related objects still live on.]
- A special kind of Aggregation, where the diamond end denotes a `1..1` multiplicity
- If the object of at the diamond side is destroyed, so must be the related ones in the opposite end of the Composition
- If the campus is demolished, it makes no sense to keep track of its buildings and parks anymore.
.footnote[.red[*] A mnemonic: black = "death". "If the whole is deleted, so are all the parts".]
## Association vs. Aggregation vs. Composition
- Compositions are special cases of Aggregations and Aggregations are special cases of Associations.
- It is also possible to specify associations between a Class and itself.
- Useful for representing hierarchies / subcomponents (one-to-many) or graphs (many-to-many).
## Qualified association (cont'd)
- One or more attributes of an association used to navigate from the class with the qualifier to the other
- "Access key" from the qualifier to the qualified class
- The qualifier is like an *indexed list* of a subset of objects of the qualified class (no box side) that are relevant for each of the objects in the qualifier class (box side)
## Qualified association vs Association Class
| | Association Class | Qualified Association |
| ---- | :----------------------------------: | :----------------------------------------------------------: |
| | Represents a distinct type of object | Is not a new object type, only |
| | Is a separate set of records | "Lives inside the Class of the qualified end of the association<br />*(the class with the "box" attached)*<br /><br />Is an index for a subset of objects of the non-qualified end of the association |
| | | Like a Hash Table attribute of the qualified class, with keys of type <Class with Box attached> and objects of type <Class on the end with no box> |
| | | |
## N-ary associations
- n-ary associations express relationships between more than 2 classes.
- Multiplicity is calculated one by one, by "fixating" all other classes to 1 and calculating the multiplicity of that "end" of the association according to the requirements.
- Ternary = 3 classes involved; Quaternary = 4 classes; n-ary = n classes...
## N-ary association classes
- Association classes can also be associated to n-ary associations.
- Attributes need to depend on all of the associated classes!
## Useful software
- For diagramming
- [draw.io](http://draw.io) - Free online collaborative diagramming, uses Google Drive
- [Dia](http://dia-installer.de) - Free for all Operating Systems
- [Visual Paradigm](https://www.visual-paradigm.com) - Paid for all Operating Systems
- [OmniGraffle](https://www.omnigroup.com/omnigraffle) - Paid for Mac
- *Jeffrey D. Ullman and Jennifer Widom. 2008. A First Course in Database Systems. 3rd Edition*
- Section 4.7 Unified Modeling Language
- *CS145 Lecture Notes (7) -- Higher-Level Design: UML. [Link](http://infolab.stanford.edu/~ullman/fcdb/jw-notes06/uml.html).*